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Term Definition

The process by which an individual adapts cognitively and emotionally to a new culture, as well as adapting to its communication systems (Kayser, 1998)

Additive bilingualism:  Occurs when both languages spoken by the student are reinforced, resulting in higher levels of proficiency in the two languages (Roseberry-McKibben, 2002)
Balanced bilingualism Approximately equal competence in two languages (Kayser, 1998)
BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills- the context embedded, everyday language that occurs between conversational partners.  It may take up to 2 years to develop BICS in a second language.
BICS-CALPS Gap The period of time when a child is in between mastery of basic interpersonal communication skills (may take up to 2 years) and cognitive academic language skills (which may take up to 5-7 years)
Bilingual bootstrapping  Proficiency (Common Underlying Proficiency Hypothesis, Interdependence Hypothesis) Refers to the idea that a bilingual childís development in one language can be advanced by the other; he two languages can be mutually advanced by virtue of sharing some linguistic conceptual knowledge. See interdependence  hypothesis/common underlying proficiency hypothesis
CALPS Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills- The language of academics which is context reduced.  It may take up to 5-7 years to develop CALPS in a second language
CLD Culturally and Linguistically Diverse- Children from homes and communities where English is not the primary language of communication
Code-mixing/Code switching Moving from one language to another, inside a sentence (intrautterance) or across sentences in the same conversation (interutterance) This is a common form of language use in both bilingual children and adults.  It does not occur randomly; it is grammatically and socioculturally constrained
Common Underlying Proficiency Hypothesis See Bilingual bootstrapping
Dominant Language The condition of bilingual people having 1 language in which they possess greater grammatical proficiency, more vocabulary, and greater fluency than the other language.
Dual Language System Hypothesis When an infant is presented with dual language input, he or she constructs 2 separate linguistic representations from the outset, such as 2 vocabularies and grammars- there is no discernible stage in development in which the childís language system has to differentiated or separate into 2. 
Dynamic Assessment Use of a variety of both formal and informal assessment measures to gain knowledge about a studentsí ability levels.  Informal measures may include writing samples, inventories, language samples and observation.  The gathering of data about student performance over time and in different settings in order to assess a studentís ability to learn (Crowley & Valenti, 206)
English Language Learners (ELLs) Language minority students who are learning English, the majority language, for social integration and educational purposes
First language (L1) attrition Proficiency in the native language (L1) declines as the second language (L2) becomes dominant.  When the first language is a minority language, there is a risk of first language attrition.
Formulaic language Type of language children produce when they begin speaking the second language (after the nonverbal stage).  Utterances are short, 1-word responses or memorized phrases with little novel content (e.g., Whatís happening?)
Funds of knowledge Knowledge and skills that are acquired informally during everyday interactions with family and community.  Children from minority cultural backgrounds often have funds of knowledge that differ from the majority cultural group.
Interference A process in which a communicative behavior from one language is carried into a second language (Roseberry-McKibbin, 2002)
L1 Language 1- The native language of a person
L2 Language 2- A language that is learned as a second language
Language Dominance The language a person speaks most proficiently
Language Loss The weakening of an individualís first language because of a concentrated focus on the development of a second (L2) (Schiff-Myers, 1992)
Language Proficiency The childís level of skill in the use of a particular language across reading, writing, listening and speaking. (Roseberry-McKibbin, 2002)
Lexical gap hypothesis Theory that children and adults mix words from one language into an utterance when they do not know thw word in the appropriate language.  (e.g., I want some heldado)
Nonverbal (silent) period Stage children go through early in their acquisition of a second language when they do not speak in the presence of speakers of the second language.  Children accumulate receptive knowledge during this time, which could last a few weeks to a few months
Sequential bilingual Second language learner- Children who begin to learn an additional language after 3 years of age.  Usually exposed to additional language in school setting. 
Simultaneous bilingual A child who learns to speak 2 different languages at 1 time from early childhood
Subtractive bilingualism Occurs when the studentís first language is replaced by the second language
Telegraphic language Type of language children use when they begin to speak the second language productively, after or concurrent with the formulaic stage.  Omissions  grammatical morphology are prevalent (e.g., She no want ball)
Transfer errors Mispronunciations, wrong word order, or other errors in a second language learnerís interlanguage that are due to influence from the first language.

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